W20_Hari_Technical Lessons


In the realm of Total Cost Management, there are many skills and tools which are developed to guide and assist Project Owners/Asset Managers to track and manage projects. Particularly two aspects were relevant and provide better technique to improve current practices. In this blog, brief description of these 2 methods will be shown for general reference.

  1. Early and Late Dates in S-Curve


    During scheduling, early dates and late dates are calculated to show free float for each activity and then to determine total float for entire project.


    In execution phase, S-curves are used for project tracking and controlling. S-curves are an important project management tool. They allow the progress of a project to be tracked visually over time, and form a historical record of what has happened to date. Analyses of S-curves allow project managers to quickly identify project growth, slippage, and potential problems that could adversely impact the project if no remedial action is taken.


    The current practice is using early dates only as BCWS in S-curve, which leads to many alerts and delay trigger although the actual progress is ahead of late dates. This removes the function of S-curve as accurate progress tracking tool and generates false alarms.


    By incorporating late dates into the S-curves, visibility is improved for tracking actual progress in relation to both early dates and late dates. The example below shows the application of ED (shown as PV) and LD (shown as LV) in S-curve. Future project planning and controlling should engage ED and LD in S-curve to give visual representation of project status.




  2. Earned Schedule into EVM

The EVM technique is extensively used in government and private projects internationally, and is described by numerous standards, e.g. AS 2006, ANSI 1998. By employing EVM, the project manager can get a snapshot of the project status in terms of cost and schedule; and obtain performance metrics that guide Project Managers to take corrective actions.

However EVM does have limitations. While EVM is excellent in quantitatively expressing and analyzing project cost performance, the success has not extended to schedule performance. Main reason for gap in schedule performance results in using unit of cost rather than time resulting in SV catching up to zero at the end of project, regardless of time delays. Also comparison with time based network diagram (e.g. critical path) is difficult.

The concept of Earned Schedule as extension of EVM addressed the gaps mentioned above. ES measures unit of time, thus accurately capturing the schedule index and variance through the project life cycle. The figure below shows the additional parameter, i.e. SV(t) which is schedule variance in number of week, which is different from traditional EVM SV parameter that gives variance in unit of cost. The variation of SV(t) throughout project lifecycle is shown at the bottom. While SV is back to zero (not reflecting 5 wks delay of completion), the SV(t) shows exactly the duration delay at each time interval until finish.


In addition to SV(t), there are also other parameters introduced in ES method, which compliments EVM. The list of ES parameters are shown below against corresponding parameters in EVM. The calculation methodology of status index, future work estimates and prediction are same as EVM, but done in time domain. This gives rise to new matrix of performance indicators which are helpful to Project Managers.


Work Count: 510



[1] Czarnigowska, A., Joskowski, P., Biruk, S. (2011). Project Performance Reporting And Prediction: Extension of Earned Value Management. Retrieved from:

W19_Hari_Performance Dashboard


Problem Statement

In managing multiple projects, a dashboard is necessary to give status summary in brief and to trigger early warning alert. At present, the SPI vs CPI chart is used to monitor the performance of each project. While the chart shows the key PMB of the projects, it does not give an insight to other aspects of each project which have impact on overall project performance.

Problem Statement: To explore graphical tool as dashboard for managing multiple projects


Development of Feasible Alternatives

  1. Using SPI vs CPI chart (continue current method)
  2. Using Radar Chart


Evaluation of Alternatives

Option 1: The resulting SPI vs CPI chart is shown in Figure 1. From the chart, it is clearly visible that Project C is in jeopardy (significantly delayed in terms of schedule and warrants highest attention). Project A is also in trouble and requires recovery action; while Project B is within +/- 10% of schedule but 20% over the cost estimate.

Figure 1: SPI vs CPI Chart


Option 2: The radar chart was developed to depict 6 key dimensions of project performance, as shown in Figure 2. The 6 dimensions are:

  1. SPI (schedule)
  2. CPI (cost)
  3. Quality Index
  4. Project Documentation
  5. Process Compliance
  6. Safety Index

The figure below clearly shows that Project B is the worst in overall performance, and urgent improvement is required in terms of schedule, quality, process compliance and cost. This project has passed the contractual dateline and liable for penalty. Further analysis reveals that resources competency; supervision and compliance are weak, leading to frequent rework and repairs due to poor quality and process incompliance. This has caused delays in overall schedule and also increase in cost due to unnecessary reworks and repairs. Immediate action is required to recover the remaining work and drive towards project closure.

Project C is in jeopardy in terms of schedule but its performance in terms of other 5 aspects are better than average. Detail review shows that Project C has just started 2 weeks ago and still has limited resources (only 35% of positions budgeted in Project HR plan have been filled). This has delayed the project ramp up which was planned, thus giving low SPI. In this case, the hiring should be accelerated by introducing premium compensation/rate for competency resources since project cost is still below budget (CPI is 1.1).

Project A which was within +/- 10% of SPI; actually has areas of improvement required for cost, project documentation and process compliance.

Figure 2: Radar chart of project performance


Selection Criteria and Selection of Preferred Alternative

The selection was done based on visibility of key project aspect performances. Radar chart (option 2) was selected due to holistic overview provided to measure performance of each project. The radar chart can be configured to represent “danger” and “warning” zones as shown in Figure 3. Moving forward, radar chart will be used as dashboard for multi project tracking.

Figure 3: Radar Chart with different zones


Performance Monitoring and Post Evaluation of Results

Radar charts have more information compared to basic SPI vs CPI charts. The examples given above can be extended to include more dimensions, depending on nature of project and level of depth required. In the dashboard, it will be useful to show total % completion of scope (as text label) thus giving reviewer an idea of the current project phase. Further refinement should be made as required.


Word Count: 557



  1. NASA (April 2000). PDRI: Project Definition Rating Index. Retrieved from:

W21_RW_Lessons Learned (Soft Skill)


The purpose of this lessons learned document of AACE Certification Preparation Course project is to captures the valuable experiences since inception of the project until the project close out for use by other similar projects. This document could be used by project mentor, program and project managers as well as project team members to avoid any similar project faults that went wrong and take the lessons from things that went well as well as improve the current practices to get the project excellence.

Lessons Learned Approach

The lessons learned from this project are compiled from individual project notes since inception until project close out. The lessons learned from this project is structured based on project’s deliverables such as face to face session, paper development, question, tool and technique, blog weekly report and bidding.

Lessons Learned from this Project

Lessons Learned Knowledge Base / Database

This lesson learned will be compiled with other student’s lessons learned and stored in Yahoo Group file as well as by the Mentor for his document for future use.

Lessons Learned Applied from Previous Projects

This AACE Certification preparation course project is less using previous course lessons learned.

Process Improvement Recommendations

As indicated in the table above, the major negative (-) what went wrong issues are more to the people issues which includes the commitment and knowledge of the subject. It is recommended for those who willing to take this course have to set the commitment firmly.

The half commitment student will drag the other team member motivation down. The strong leadership is required in this course to bring the class to success. Firing the non-performer team member or even the program manager or project manager sometimes is necessary action to be taken to safe our project, but I strongly urge to make it professional and not to bring it in personal.




Lessons Learned Template retrieved from www.ProjectManagementDocs.com

W20_RW_Lessons Learned (Technical)


The purpose of this lessons learned document of AACE Certification Preparation Course project is to captures the valuable experiences since inception of the project until the project close out for use by other similar projects. This document could be used by project mentor, program and project managers as well as project team members to avoid any similar project faults that went wrong and take the lessons from things that went well as well as improve the current practices to get the project excellence. This lesson learned document will only show you the valuable tools and techniques I learned from the course.

 Lessons Learned Approach

The lessons learned from this project are compiled from individual project notes since inception until project close out. The tools and technique stated in this document have been tried and some implemented in my works as well as during the executing the course’s assignment.

Tools and technique learned from this course:

Engineering Economic Analysis Procedures
The procedure is strongly recommended by the mentor as writing blog format. It consist some steps such as:

  • Problem recognition, definition and evaluation, using “root cause analysis” or other tools/techniques
  • Development of feasible alternatives
  • Development of the outcomes
  • Selection of the acceptable criteria
  • Compare the outcomes from each alternative
  • Performance Monitoring and post evaluation.

What Went Well:

This practice is very useful for me when I did some project financial analysis and project proposal, the structure guide me in developing the project proposal for the high level management to take decision on it. The high level management received the key information of the project, the consequences, the alternatives, the outcomes and action proposed as well as the post evaluation of the projects.

The real case was when I did the proposal to purchase the expensive software for my department as part of continues improvement program, it was answering all the questions required prior to take a decision to go or no go and it got approved in very short time.

What Went Wrong:

It was very hard for me to implement in my blog assignment, as I have to switch from my past writing experiences to this structure procedure and mathematical modeling techniques. Some of my blog was rejected by the mentor because I’m not following the structure.


I strongly recommend this tools and technique or procedure implement in works environment, as it can be used in broad.


Lessons Learned Template retrived from : www.ProjectManagementDocs.com

W20_EDN_Pareto Chart

1.       Problem Definition

My colleague and I examine why under-served communities do not have a routine habit to save money. Just like I said in blog posted June 9, 2012, we have conducted a phone survey to understand what problems under-served communities are having.

Problem Statement: What are the key problems?

2.       The Feasible Alternatives

Based on the problem, I identify two possible results:

  1. The result shows the people do not have any problems with saving habit.
  2. The result shows the people faced a problem when it relates with saving habit

3.       Tools and Technique

To answer the problem, there are several steps to solve the problem using Pareto Chart:

  • Collect sample data;
  • Based on data collection, determine problem category and frequency;
  • Draw the Pareto Chart from the frequency table; and
  • Interpret the Pareto Chart.

4.     Selection of the Acceptable Criteria.

Table 1 shows the problem category and frequency table which we collected from phone survey respondents.

Table 1: Problem Category and Frequency Table

We decided the problem categories on the horizontal line (x axis) and the frequencies on vertical line (y axis). Then, we draw the Pareto Chart.

Figure 1: The Pareto Chart

Figure 1 shows the frequency of there is no reason to save money is the highest (35) among others. The tallest bar indicates the biggest contributors to the overall problem. The phone survey shows that under-served communities are having a problem with motivation or goals to save money for future needs.

5.       Post-Evaluation of the Result

The under-served communities are the most vulnerable groups in our societies. Based on the calculation above, the result shows the under-served communities think that there is no reason to save money. The policy makers on banking sectors should evaluate is the current campaign to save money sufficient enough for under-served communities and think the effective campaign to raise awareness the importance to save money for future needs.

There is a clear distinction between the Histogram on blog posted June 9, 2012 with the Pareto Chart. The Histogram only displays the frequency distribution, whereas the Pareto Chart analyzes the frequency of problems.  

6.       References

Brassard, M. & Ritter, D. (2010). The Memory Jogger 2: Tools for Continuous Improvement and Effective Planning, pp. 122-135.

Pareto Chart. Retrieved from: http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cause-analysis-tools/overview/pareto.html

Pareto Chart. Retrieved from: http://personnel.ky.gov/nr/rdonlyres/d04b5458-97eb-4a02-bde1-99fc31490151/0/paretochart.pdf