Work Management is business processes at maintenance that require to be following by maintenance management to ensure maintenance activity execute the right job in the right way and in the right time.

There are a lot of kinds of work management type in the maintenance world, but implementing in each organization is base on their own characteristic.

Work management is part of Asset Management Business Process.

Figure 1 Asset Management Process

Feasible Alternative

There are options for some organization about work management.

  1. Do nothing, it means organization already confidence with current maintenance process and not required to improve and/or implementing work management process.
  2. Review, improve and implementing Asset Management Process for all Area
  3. Review, improve and implementing work management at maintenance area.


Selection Criteria

In this blog, will focus on implementation of work management at mining company inIndonesia.


Work Management is a business process for maintenance from beginning of work identified/requested until work finished.


Figure 2 Work Management Process


Prior implementation, we did a survey to ensure where we are against the business process proposed. The survey results are:


–         Work Approval : Activity at maintenance area meet less than 40% of assessment criteria

–         Planning : Activity at maintenance area meet less than 40% of assessment criteria

–         Scheduling : Activity at maintenance area meet less than 40% of assessment criteria

–         Execution : Activity at maintenance area meet 40% to 80% of assessment criteria

Base on those assessment results, we realized that our organization required making improvement on maintenance work management. I was appointed to become project manager for this initiative at end of 2006.


Implementation of maintenance work management required 3 years of implementation from project charter released.  The result of implementation is resulting high variation reduce on maintenance activity which calculated through Maintenance Leading KPI and also high improvement on maintenance Lagging KPI



Figure 3 Schedule Work KPI Trending


Figure 4 Schedule Task Compliance KPI trending


Figure 5 Service task completed KPI trending


Figure 6 PM’s completed KPI trending



Figure 7 MTBF KPI trending


Figure 8 Maintenance Cost KPI trending


With consistency of work management process at maintenance area and sustaining the process, we have significant improvement both in leading KPI and lagging KPI.

  1. Leading KPI à from 2007 until 2009, high variation reduce due to consistency maintenance guys to following maintenance work management which ensuring the right job only will be executed with the right way and finish it in the right time.
  2. Lagging KPI :
    1. Increasing of MTBF (mean time between failure). This is delivering huge impact to operation, since reliability of asset can be increased with consistently following maintenance work management with more proactive for any defect found to keep asset healthy.
    2. Cost maintenance also significant reduce due to material and resources can be planned and scheduled better.

Continues Improvement

Maintenance Work management is business process, not a tools or equipment. Then, behaviour change and sustainability of business process very high required. After project closed, sustainability program handed over to owner and mandatory for owner to conduct weekly work management.


  1. LAI Reliability System,inc (2011). Work Management Simulation. Retrieved from http://www.laireliability.com/work-management-simulation.
  2. McAler, Mick (2006). AMF_ Mick_Audit_Result.
  3. Rico, Albert (2009). Utilities Succes Story
  4. VALE (2009). Asset Management Framework Business Process
  5. Hatch Mott MacDonald (2011). Asset Management. Retrieved from http://www.hatchmott.com/expertise/asset-management
  6. Speaks, Scott (2000). Reliability and MTBF Overview. Retrieved from http://www.vicorpower.com/documents/quality/Rel_MTBF.pdf


W16_TP_Determine Maintenance KPI of mobile equipment


Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals.

Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect the critical success factors of an organization.

Mobile Equipment as a main asset at mining business always requires having KPI yearly plan for the asset to match with Mining Yearly Planning.

Feasible Alternative

There is two type of KPI, are:

  1. Leading Indicator
  2. Lagging Indicator

 Selection Criteria

In this blog, will explore on how determine Leading Indicator Target for Mobile Equipment.


Leading indicator is a KPI that can help organization allow taking action proactively. In mobile equipment, base on maintenance work management, leading indicator can be detailing become:

  1. Schedule Task Compliance
  2. Schedule Work
  3. Service Task Completed by the right time

The simulation running using monte carlo software using historical data from past years and combine with assumption from Mobile Equipment engineer.

In beginning of year, management always give the target number for those KPI, and using monte carlo simulation, we tried to analysis what is the realistic number to achieve and comparing with Management Target. Then, we will have confidence level to decide the target.

Target from Management setup are:

Table 1 KPI Trget Setup By Management


Schedule Task Compliance

Figure 1 Schedule Task ComplianceTarget

Schedule Work

Figure 2 Schedule Work

Service Task Completed by the right time

Figure 3 Service Task Completed By the right time target


Table 2 Summary KPI Target vs Confidence Level

 From table above, only Service task Completed with the Right time that has confidence level around 20 % to meet with management target. From historical data, the best achievement also only at 73%.

 For other KPI, it indicates that those KPI is possible and realistic to meet with management target.

Continues Improvement

Monitoring KPI at weekly basis with using control chart will help mobile equipment management to keep those KPI in track and avoid the special causes.

For Servie Task Completed by The Right Time,Mobileequipment management required to :

  1. Negotiate with management target, with using result of calculation and decide the realistic number to be achieved.
  2. Ensure Work management business process improve with detail analysis to find what is the root cause for special cause on this KPI.


  1. Programsuccess (2011).Key Performance Indicators – An Overview. Retrieved from http://programsuccess.wordpress.com
  2. Palisade Corporation (2012). Monte CarloSimulation. Retrieved from http://www.palisade.com/risk/monte_carlo_simulation.asp
  3. Mather, Daryl (2008).Techniques for applying Leading or Lagging metrics immediately..Retrieved from http://www.reliabilityweb.com/art06/leading_indicators.htm
  4. Siegle,Del, Ph.D (2008). Confidence Interval And Levels. Retrieved from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/Samples/ConfidenceInterval.htm

W10_TP_Business Case Quality


Business case (BC) is an important document to starting the project. An effective business case is one that matches the purpose and parameters of the funding program that it seeks to attract. In short, an effective business case justifies:

  • why a project should be undertaken,
  • why a private or public partner should invest in it, and
  • why the project represents a worthy expenditure of public funds.

 However, a problem or mistake always occurs when sponsor submit the business case and this is impact to another process of capital project execution.

Feasible Alternative

To review what is the root cause on business case quality can be using common tools.

–         Ishikawa Diagram

–         Tree Diagram

–         Pareto

–         Etc

Selection Criteria

In this blog, it will use Ishikawa Diagram to try find out what is the root cause and see what the feasible opportunity to improve current business case quality.


Figure 1 Ishikawa for Business Case Poor Quality Problem

From Ishikawa diagram above, looks a “lack of understanding” is the main root cause of why Business case submitted to capital team are in poor quality.


They are steps on how to write a business case:

  1. Determine who the writer for the business case will be. The writer should have knowledge and expertise with the project, but he must be open to input from the team members as the case is written.
  2. Explain how the project started or the task force was first assembled. Reasons for starting the project might include seeking increased efficiency, more engagement, elevated profits or anything else that has become an issue with the company or organization.
  3. Elaborate about the methods the group used to do its research and come up with its plan. If the group surveyed departments, met with target audiences, convened a portion of a community, or just discussed the issues, include this information.
  4. Express the solution or project proposed by the group. Explain in detail how the proposed change addresses any problems or issues and fixes them.
  5. Indicate what is needed to implement the solution or project, including items like a monetary budget and increased labor.
  6. Detail the timelines or timeframes for implementation of the project. Start from the beginning and estimate implementation dates to the completion of the project.
  7. Identify what will happen if this suggestion or project is not adopted. Explain the consequences and what the business may experience without implementing this plan.
  8. Write about the next steps of the program. If implementation is the next step, indicate this. If more research is necessary, explain why.


Business case is an important document before we start the project. Understanding the steps on how to write a document will give the advantage to ensure the document is in high quality. The success of business case will trigger budget release and also deliver clear scope for implementation phase.

Figure 2 Step to writing business case

 Continues Improvement

To ensure the business case success, it has to keep the following goals as well :

  • Make it interesting; remember someone will have to read it.
  • Keep it clear and concise.
  • Minimize jargon and conjecture.
  • Communicate all facts as part of the overall story – you’ve done your homework, here is the chance to prove it.
  • Provide the reader with a picture or vision of the end state.
  • Demonstrate the value the project brings to the organization, customer and financial bottom line of the company.


  1. Project Smart (2012). Business Case Defining a Specific Business Need. Retrieved from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/business-case.html

  2. Brassard, M and Ritter, D (2010), The Memory Jogger (2nd Edition),Canada, GOAL/QPC
  3. BPR Online LearningCenter(2010). Business Case Tutorial Series:
    how to write an effective business case
    . Retrieved from http://www.prosci.com/tutorial-business-case-mod1.htm
  4. Baxter, W.J (2002). Preparing an Effective Business Case – A Guide to Planning and Funding Municipal and Community Projects. Retrieved from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/busdev/facts/02-023.htm

W15_TP_Tuckman Analysis Assignment_For Project Services


In Project Organization, project service team has a big contribution to support a project manager to ensure the project is working smoothly. However, in Functional Organization of project management at one of mining company, Project Service team not report directly to Project Manager. Project Service has another report structure. In some case, this organization has a weakness and a strength regarding on deliver support to project manager.

Feasible Alternative

There are feasible alternative to using Tuckman analysis on which team we can analyzed within project organization.

  1. Project Manager Group
  2. Project Team
  3. Project Service Group

 Selection Criteria

Decided to use Tuckman Analysis Assignment on Project Service Group since this group has significant impact on delivery a support to project manager and project team.


The current condition of project service base on ishikawa diagram below. The data taken from interview with project service customer such as project manager, project engineer and general manager. Also coming from observation on day to day job.


Figure 1 Ishikawa for Project Service Current Condition


 The result of assessment is coming from the questioner survey by using a Donald Clark’s survey tool, we collected from 9 team member and we got 288 data in number that represent four stages (Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing) and collaborate those data using PERT analysis to calculate a single value from a group of data and then measure the consensus of that number.

Table 1 Result of Survey


Base on result and refer to the tools we used, it indicates if Project Service Team is in Norming stage.

Norming stage base on Tuckman’s Teamwork Theory is :

This is the phase where team members start to come together, developing processes, establishing ground rules, clarifying who does what, and how things will be done. This phase is characterized by a growing sense of “togetherness”

Figure 2 The 4 Phases of Tuckman’s Teamwork Theory

 Continues Improvement

Suitable leadership style is highly required to lead the team to achieve the team goal, The Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership theory could be adopted in identifying the leadership style, this theory categorized all leadership style into behavior types i.e.:

v     Telling: one way communication, where leader defines role of individual and group and provides what, who, when and where to do the task.

v     Selling: Telling style plus using two ways communication that will allow individual or group being influenced to buy the process.

v     Participating: Shared decision making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and leader is providing less task behavior while maintain high relationship behavior.

v     Delegating: The leader is still involved in decision, however, the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. The leader stays involved to monitor progress.

Some improvement already made to improve team work performance and will be re-analysis again using Tuckman’s analysis in the near future.


  1. Brassard, M and Ritter, D (2010), The Memory Jogger (2nd Edition),Canada, GOAL/QPC
  2. The Happy Manager (2011). Teamwork Theory: Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development. Retrieved from http://www.the-happy-manager.com/teamwork-theory.html
  3. Business Ball.com (2009). Tuckman forming storming norming performing model: Bruce Tuckman’s 1965 Forming Storming Norming Performing team-development model. Retrieved from  http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
  4. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organizational Behavior 3rd Edition– Utilizing Human Resources. New Jersey/Prentice Hall.

W12_TP_Bass Guitar Purchase Selection


A bass guitar is a stringed instrument designed for playing the lower notes in a piece of music. In a band or ensemble, the bass guitar generally plays an accompaniment to the lead guitar. A bass guitar can be acoustic, semi-acoustic, or electric and though similar to a guitar, the bass guitar has a few major differences. The selection is required since a lot of class and brand in the market. Furthermore, the selection must using analysis to ensure all aspects consider during selection and will give satisfying after the bass guitar purchase and use on stage regularly.

Feasible Alternative

There are a lot of types of bass guitar in the market.

–         acoustic type

–         semi acoustic type

–         electric type

In this blog, will focus on selection for electric bass guitar from several brands in the market.

 Selection Criteria

To make analysis in what electric bass guitar type will be choose, in this blog will use Compensatory Models.

Before make an assessment, some type of Bass Guitar already chooses for further analysis base on the specification where they are in same level of specification.

They are:

–         Yamaha BB 425 TBS

–         Cort EVL Z 4 B

–         Ibanez SR 300 PW

–         Epiphone EB 3 Cherry  SG Model  Electric


  • Define the Attribute

Table 1 Attribute for Guitar Bass Electric

  • Define the Nondimensional Scaling

Table 2  NonDimensional Scaling

  • Define Ordinal Ranking

Table 3 Ordinal Rangking


Table 4  The Additive Weighting Technique

Base on Additive Weighting Technique from table 4, it shows Ibanez SR 300 PW having the higher number rather than others alternative.



From table 4, I have the calculation of weighting factor that resulting Ibanez SR 300 PW is the best Electric Bass Guitar to be purchased.

Continues Improvement

Now, after purchase the Bass Guitar, it requires to be maintained regularly and use the Bass Guitar frequently.

After several times using this Ibanez SR 300 PW on the stage, seems the selection is meet with the goal.



  1. Beam, J (2012). Retrieved from www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-bassguitar.htm.
  2. Nuansa Musik (2012). Retrieved from http://nuansamusik.com
  3. Sullivan, W.G., Wicks, E.M., Koelling, C.P. (2009). Engineering Economy, Fifteenth edition. Pearson International Edition, 2012, Chapter 14, pages 551 – 566.