I was in a Leadership workshop when I found out that there are theories of motivation which I never heard before until I found them in the pre exam pass by my mentor. There are many theories regarding how to motivate others but the most prominent theories are:
- X and Y theory
- 2 Factor theory
- Equity Theory
- Expectancy theory
- Goal Setting theory
X and Y Theory
This theory was proposed in early 60’s by Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, from his book “The Human Side of Enterprise”. McGregor suggest that there are 2 style in managing people, using “authoritarian style” or known as X theory which the management will use power to direct his/her subordinate to achieve the organization’s goals. He/she will give a detail direction what and how to do things. It will result in an un-ambitious, lack of responsibility subordinate. All responsibility will be under the manager. No sense of belongings to the result of the work from the subordinate.
The other style is “participative management” or known as Y theory, which the management allows his/her subordinates to express their ideas, self directed and self control. The management will only give a general objectives and timeline/duration. The subordinates will be responsible to achieve the objectives.
Those 2 (X and Y) theories are well-matched to certain conditions/level of organization. When we face the situation where the subordinates is the lowest level of organization with inadequate knowledge and capability, then use the X theory, give them detail direction and closely monitor the progress. But for the medium level of organization where the knowledge and capability were adequate, then use the Y theory, give them the objectives and general direction and let them solve it.
2 Factors Theory
Herzberg shares his theory about the cause of employee’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In his theory, he explains that there are 2 factors which influence employee’s motivation. They are motivation and hygiene. Motivation factor is the factor that the absence of this factor will not result in dissatisfaction of the employee but when this factor provided by the company, it will heighten the employee’s motivation. This factor included status, recognition, bonuses, promotion etc.
And not in the opposite of the motivation factor but different factor that gives effect to employee’s motivation is hygiene factor. Hygiene factor is factor that the absence of this factor will result in dissatisfaction of the employee but when this factor provided by the company there will be no change to their motivation since this is the basic needs. This factor includes wages, salary, security of works, quality of inter personnel relations etc.
This theory was presented by John Stacey Adam in 1963, it said that people will be highly motivated when he receive fairly and equally treatment in every aspects of his life. There are 3 elements in equity theory, they are: 1. Input, are every aspect that given by the worker such as effort, skills, commitment, and hard work etc, 2. Outcomes, are every aspects that the worker thought that those are his rewards such as payment, salary, wages, and promotion etc, 3. Comparison person, is individual whose worker compare his ratio to.
The equity theory is dependant to comparison between an individual ratio of reward/investment (input/outcomes) to ratio by other (Comparison Person) in similar condition. He/she will naturally compare his/her ratio to other ratio which any inequity due to comparison will result in disappointment worker.
This theory was brought by Victor H. Vroom in 1964, it said that an individual tend to motivated when he knows that in the end there is something he can expected to become. This theory is based on 3 aspects, they are: 1. Expectancy, is perception that the current effort will lead to good performance, 2. Instrumentality, is perception that the performance will lead to reward, 3. Valence, is the expected value will be received.
From the above theories, we can conclude that every theory has similarities to each other. There are many ways to encourage the worker but all theory emphasize that reward id the easiest way to motivate the worker.
Scholl, Richard W., “Motivation: Expectancy Theory”, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Motivation_Expectancy.htm
Kurniawan, Arifianto, “Theory : 2 Factor, Expectancy, Equity”, retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/54889324/Case-Study-2-Factor-Expectancy-Equity-Theory
“Douglas McGregor: theory x y” retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm
“Motivation in theory – Herzberg two factor theory” retrieved from http://tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_herzberg.asp
“Equity Theory on Job Motivation” retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/adamsequitytheory.htm