W12.0_RQ_Simple Case of Progress Measurement

PROBLEM STATEMENT

There are six most common methods to measure progress : units completed, incremental milestone, supervisor opinion, cost ratio, and weighetd or equivalent units. In order to get clear understand of those method, this blog will try to analys which method will be suitbale to be used to the following simple case.

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Figure 1 : Cross Section CSP

The works is construction of Corrugated Steel Pipe [CSP] 1800 Dia L 8m. The works consist of : excavation, sand bedding, laying CSP, and backfilling. Pay item will be only laying CSP, no separate pay items for sand excavation, sand bedding, and backfilling. Client will require contractor to produce daily report which shall clearly report daily progress work achievement. The following table are estimated by Contractor to complete the works.

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Figure 2 : BAC, Duration, and  Men Hours

 The Question is : How to measure daily achievement of works as required to be reported to Client.

FEASIBLE ALTERNATIVES

As mentioned above, there are six most common methods to measure progress :

  • Units completed
  • Incremental milestone
  • Start finish
  • Supervisor opinion
  • Cost ratio and
  • Weighted or equivalent units

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Conclusion will be made by comparing suitability of each method

SELECTION of PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE

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Figure 3 : BAC, Duration, and  Men Hours in percentage

Assessment to the feasible alternatives can be explain as the following :

Alternative 1 Units Completed : Each subtask can not be accomplished simulatenously thus this alternative is not applicable.

Alternative 2 Incremental Millestone : Subtask is handled in sequence thus this alternative migh be applicable.

Alternative 3 Start Finish : Effor time required for each subtask is not very difficult to estimate thus this alternative is not applicable.

Alternative 4 Supervisor Opinion : This method might be applicable however, this is subjective approach. The major problems is that some superviors are optimists and some are pessimists thus this method is not recommended.

Alternative 5 Cost Ratio : Tasks does not involve a long period of time thus this method is not applicable.

Alternative 6 Weighted or Equivalent Units : Tasks does not involve a long period of time thus this method is not applicable.

CONCLUSION

Based on the aforementioned selection therefore it can be concluded that Alternative 2 is applicable method to be used. Therefore, progress can be measured Excavation : 11% in total, sand bedding 33% in total, laying CSP 56% in total, and  back filling 100% in total.

MONITORING & POST VALUATION

Daily report can be presented to Client using incremental milestone method as described in alternative 2.

REFERENCES

  1. Giammalvo, P.D. (2012). AACE Certification Preparation Course Handouts.
  2. Humphreys, G.C. (2011). Project Management Using Earned Value Second Edition. Humphreys & Associates, Inc.
  3. The Education Board of AACE International.(2010). Skills & Knowledge of Cost Engineering 5th Edition Revised. AACE International.
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W11.0_RQ_Deming, Juran, and Crosby

BACKGROUND

I was very shock seeing the fact that I couldn’t give any answer about Deming, Juran, and Crosby during “life fire” exam on 05 May 2012. It was however an open book exam, but using of  laptops (i.e excel) or the internet is prohibited by mentor. Actually I could find them in internet, but I didn’t want to break the rules as I need to measure my learning progress fairly. As advised by our mentor, this blog posting will try to compare the philosophy/theory  developed by Deming, Juran, and Crosby.

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE

Study literature using internet and directly compare the similarities and differences.

DEMING

William Edwards Demin was an American, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. His famous philosophy includes his his System of Profound Knowledge which is the basis for application of Deming’s famous 14 Points for Management.

JURAN

Joseph M. Juran’s major contribution to society was in the field of quality management and he is often called the “father” of quality. The Quality of a product is defined by Juran as its “fitness for use”, by the consumer that is.

CROSBY

Philip Crosby is a management guru, businessman and author who is closely associated with the speciality field of quality management practices. globe. Crosby’s name is best known in relations to the concepts of  Do It Right First Time (DRIFT) and Zero Defects. He considers traditional quality control, acceptable quality limits and waivers of sub-standard products to represent failure rather than assurance of success. Crosby therefore defines quality as conformance to the requirements

A COMPARISON OF DEMING, JURAN, AND CROSBY

Please refer to the following qualitative comparison

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Source : zulqarnain.us/files/tqmphilosophies.doc

 CONCLUSION AND POST EVALUATION

Deming, Juran,  and Crosby are the most famous Total Quality Management with similarities and differences. The next step need to be done is to find  how their philosophies relate to project management.

REFERENCES

1.      Juran Institute. (2008). Joseph M. Juran: 1904 – 2008. Retrieved from : http://www.juran.com/about_juran_institute_our_founder.html

2.      SkyMark. Dr. W. Edwards Deming. Retrieved from : http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/deming.asp

3.      Vector Study. Philip Crosby Management Gurus. Retrieved from : http://www.vectorstudy.com/management_gurus/philip_crosby.htm

4.      Zulkarnaen. Comparison of Quality Philosophies. Retrieved from : zulqarnain.us/files/tqmphilosophies.doc

W10.0_RQ_Implementation of The Earned Value Management Process for Housing Project : The Process Steps 3 – Work Teams

PROBLEM STATEMENT

In the previous blog posting (W9),  control accounts were established as the basic element for project control activities. The next step the EVM process involves work teams. Refer to Humphreys “The work team is define as group of people who have the shared responsibility to produce a specific end product or to provide a specific service that has been previously authorized”.Image

Figure  1 : Earned Value Project Management : The Process, Step 3 – Work Teams

(Sources : Humphreys Page 112)

Work team are also known as “Integrated Product Teams’ (or IPTs) or “Work Cells”.

This blog posting will illustrate how the work team concept can be used to greatly reduce the number of control accounts, thus reducing the operating cost of the project management system.

FEASIBLE ALTERNATIVES

Below are the alternatives to developed IPTs in this project particularly for construction team :

  • Alternative 1 : based on work zone
  • Alternative 2 : based on  sub-zone
  • Alternative 3 : based on zone and specific product
  • Alternative 4 : based on sub-zone and specific product

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

All of the tools in the tool box as described in Step 3 will be used in order to meet objective to comprehensive understand the EVM process.

ALTERNATIVE 1 : BASED ON WORK ZONE

Zoning system has been defined based maximum number of villas can be handled by 1 superintendent. Based on company experiences, maximum number can be handled properly by 1 superintendent is 30 villas. As shown in figure below, work zone will divided as the following :

  • Workshop : fabrication rebar and formwork
  • Zone 1 : D1-D3 [3 units]+ C1 – C12 [12 units] = 15 units +  C13 – C27 [15 units] Total 27 units
  • Zone 2 : A1-A17 [17 units] + A18-A26 [9 units] + B1 – B7 [7 units] = 16 Units
  • Zone 3 : B8-B22  [15 units] + B23-B37 [15 units]
  • Zone 4 : Mosque, Ablution, Minerat, Majlis
  • External works + earthworks

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Figure 2 : Work Team Alternative 1

 As shown in figure 2, work team consist of multi work disciplines (structure, architecture and finishing, etc).

ALTERNATIVE 2 : BASED ON SUB-ZONE

As explain in previous blog posting, construction time schedule for this project is 24 months. In order to complete the project within 24 months therefore at least structure works shall be completed within 12 months to give sufficient time for MEP and architecture finishing works to be completed within stipulated time. Assuming that sub-structure and upper structure can be completed at the latest within 2 months therefore number of sub-zone = 93×2=15.5 ~ 15 sub-zone. Formwork set to be allocated as shown in the following figure :

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Figure 3 : Formwork allocation

Work team based on sub-zone is shown below :

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Figure 4 : Work Team Alternative 2

Refer to figure 4, work team will consist of 9 teams the following :

Workshop : fabrication rebar and formwork

  • Sub-Zone 1.1 : D1-D3 [3 units]+ C1 – C12 [12 units] = 15 units
  • Sub-Zone 1.2 :  C13 – C27 = 15 units
  • Sub-Zone 2.1 : A1-A17 [17 units]
  • Sub-Zone 2.2 : A18-A26 [9 units] + B1 – B7 [7 units] = 16 Units
  • Sub-Zone 3.1 : B8-B22  = 15 units
  • Sub-Zone 3.2 : B23-B37 = 15 units
  • Zone 4 : Mosque, Ablution, Minerat, Majlis
  • External works + earthworks

Work team consist of multi work disciplines (structure, architecture and finishing, etc).

 

ALTERNATIVE 3 : BASED ON ZONE AND SPECIFIC PRODUCT

Work team is defined based on specific end product in each zone. There are 43 work team as shown below :

Figure 5 : Work Team Alternative 3

ALTERNATIVE 4 : BASED ON SUB_ZONE AND SPECIFIC PRODUCT

Work team is defined based on specific end product in each sub-zone. There are 70 work team as shown below :

Figure 6 : Work Team Alternative 4

CONCLUSION

Considering the responsibility of each team to produce specific end product, work natures, asset allocation, and completion time schedule, it can be concluded that the appropriate work team is Alternative 4.  Team lead shall be appointed by Superintendent to manage the team’s efforts.

MONITORING & POST VALUATION

Further step (step 4,5) Planning and Scheduling will be required  to confirm work team arrangement which will be explained in next blog posting.

REFERENCES

  1. Giammalvo, P.D. (2012). AACE Certification Preparation Course Handouts.
  2. Humphreys, G.C. (2011). Project Management Using Earned Value Second Edition. Humphreys & Associates, Inc.
  3. Monk, G.B. (2002). Thesis – Integrated Product Team Effectiveness in The Department of Defense. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. Retrieved from : http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA402700
  4. Project Management for Development Organizations Atlanta USA. (2007). Project Management Organization Structures. PM4DEV. Retrieved from : http://ocha-rw-v4.unog.ch/rw/rwt.nsf/db900SID/AMMF79BN9K/$File/PM4DEV_Project_Management_Organizational_Structures.pdf?OpenElement

W9.0_RQ_Implementation of The Earned Value Management Process for Housing Project : The Process Steps 3 – Organization and Responsibility Assignment

PROBLEM STATEMENT

This blog posting is continuation of previous blog posting (W8). Refer to Humphreys, after work scope has been defined and project risks has been registered, the next step in the EVM process to identify the individuals responsible for performing the work as described in the following figure :

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Figure  1 : Earned Value Project Management : The Process, Step 3 – Responsibility Assignment

(Sources : Humphreys Page 92)

 

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

All of the tools in the tool box as described in Step 3 will be used in order to meet objective to comprehensive understand the EVM process.

 

ORGANIZATION CHART of THE COMPANY

There are 6 types of organization structure in accordance with the Project Management Institute : Functional Organization, Projectized Organization, Weak Matrix, Balane Matrix, Strong Matrix, and Composite Organization. The company  currently adopt Strong Matrix Organization as shown in figure below :

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Figure 2 : The Company Organization Chart

For medium scale and below project, the standard project organization as shown in figure below :

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Figure 3 : Standard Project Organization Chart for Small Scale Project

The advantage and disadvantage of adopting the aforesaid type of organization can be simply explain by Utakrit as the following :

Advantages :

  • It attempts to retain the benefits of both structures (functional organization and project team structure).
  • Efficient utilization of resources / Coordinates resources in a way that applies them effectively to different projects.
  • Staff can retain membership on teams and their functional department colleagues.
  • Functional expertise available to all projects
  • Increased learning and knowledge transfer
  • Customer focus

Disadvantages :

  • Potential for conflict between functional vs. project groups
  • Need for balance of power
  • Greater administrative overhead.
  • Increase in managerial overhead
  • Dual reporting relationships

Construction department as part of Project Organization has been defined to comply with Work Breakdown Structure which has been defined in step 2

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Figure 4 : Construction Department Organization

 

RESPONSIBILITY ASSIGNMENT MATRIX (RAM)

After the work is defined and the project organization known,  the development of  a matrix that correlates scope of work with the organization is shown on the following figure particularly for construction area :

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Figure 5 : Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

 

CONTROL ACCOUNT ESTABLISHMENT

Further planning can proceed in the area of defining specific accounts or element that can be used to control the works. These are called Control Account. The purpose of control account to manage the technical, schedule and cost performance of a managerially significant element of the work as shown in figure below :

Figure 6 : Control Account

 

CONCLUSION

Responsibility assignment is an important element of project management after work has been defined. OBS defines the project organization. Control account is the intersection point between WBS and OBS to manage the technical, schedule, and cost performance of a managerially significant element of the works.

 

MONITORING & POST VALUATION

Further step (step 3) Work Team will be defined in next blog posting.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Giammalvo, P.D. (2012). AACE Certification Preparation Course Handouts.
  2. Humphreys, G.C. (2011). Project Management Using Earned Value Second Edition. Humphreys & Associates, Inc.
  3. Project Management for Development Organizations Atlanta USA. (2007). Project Management Organization Structures. PM4DEV. Retrieved from : http://ocha-rw-v4.unog.ch/rw/rwt.nsf/db900SID/AMMF79BN9K/$File/PM4DEV_Project_Management_Organizational_Structures.pdf?OpenElement
  4. Utakrit, N. (2007). Project Organization. The Faculty of Information Technology: KMITNB. Retrieved from : http://suanpalm3.kmutnb.ac.th/teacher/FileDL/nattavee51255516344.pdf

W8.0_RQ_Implementation of The Earned Value Management Process for Housing Project : The Process Steps 1,2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Refer to Humpreys that the Earned Value Management process can be described in the following figure :

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Figure  1 : Earned Value Project Management : The Process

(Sources : Humphreys Page 46)

The purpose of this blog posting is to implement the EVM process taking sample project which is small scale housing project in order to get clear comprehensive understand the EVM process.

 

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

All of the tools in the tool box as described in Step 1 to Step 16 will be used in order to meet objective to comprehensive understand the EVM process.

 

STEP 1 – PROJECT OBJECTIVES

Refer to Humphreys, the project objective must be known before work scope can be defined. The most of critical objectives are the technical objectives. Refer to available documents, the project objectives can be simply defined as Figure 2 :

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Figure 2 : Project Objectives

STEP 2 – WORK SCOPE DEFINITION

Refer to Humphreys that The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the tool in EVM that organizes and defines the work scope. The WBS element should progressively decompose the work scope until manageable units of work are defined. Therefore WBS for this project has been defined as the following Figure 3-1 to 3-4.

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Figure 3-1 : Work Breakdown Structure

 

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Figure 3-2 : Work Breakdown Structure

 

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Figure 3-3 : Work Breakdown Structure

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Figure 3-4 : Work Breakdown Structure

 

STEP 2 – PROJECT RISKS

Refer to Humpreys that the identification of project risks is the single most important activity, and, arguably, the most difficult of the activities of managing project risks. The identification of project risks begins at the inception of the project, preferably when the project is being proposed. 

Project Risk has been identified by Author refer to scope of works and experience on similar project as described in the following figure.

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Figure 4 : Project Risks

 

CONCLUSION

Project Objective, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Project Risks has been defined based on EVM process steps 1&2 refer to Humphreys. Project Objective consist of technical requirements and schedule has been defined except for cost. WBS displays subdivision of the project into smaller, more manageable segments of work. Project Risks has been defined refer to scope of works and author’s experiences on similar project.

 

MONITORING & POST VALUATION

Further step (step 3) Responsibility Assignment and Work Team will be defined in next blog posting. Revision/correction to WBS and organization might be required while preparing the Planning and Scheduling.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Giammalvo, P.D. (2012). AACE Certification Preparation Course Handouts.
  2. Humphreys, G.C. (2011). Project Management Using Earned Value Second Edition. Humphreys & Associates, Inc.