I have no answer when mentor gave me question about Deming, Juran and Crosby. This is what I summarize about them and their legacy to Total Quality Management in order to answer and raise my odds to pass the AACE certification.
Total Quality Management is method to manage the quality by continually improve the process and produce the product exceed the customer’s expectations. The improvement shall implemented by every level in the organizations and the management shall be the role model in this process. Total Quality Management offer the concept of strong focus in process measurement and control as means of continuous improvement.
This concept were develop from a long experience and dedication from individuals which known as “Quality Gurus”. There are three (3) well known among them.
1. Deming: W. Edwards Deming was famous in Japan in years after WWII since he assisted many Japanese Company in improving their Quality. The Japanese establish The Deming Prize, for the most improving Firms in quality aspect, to show their respects to this NYU professor back in 40’s. His legacy in quality management is the 14 points in quality improvement. They are:
- Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service.
- Adopt the new philosophy.
- Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality
- End the practice of awarding business on the basis of a price tag.
- Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service.
- Institute training on the job.
- Institute modern methods of supervision and leadership
- Drive out fear.
- Break down barriers between departments.
- Eliminate numerical goals for the work force.
- Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas
- Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
- Institute a vigorous program of education and training for everyone
- Create a structure in top management that will push everyday on the above 13 points.
Deming also introduce the “a vs. b” philosophy, said:
- When organization focus primarily on quality then the quality tends to increase and cost on the contrary.
- When organization focus primarily on cost then the quality will decline and conversely cost will raise
2. Juran: Joseph M. Juran was known in the 50’s era after publishing his book “Quality Control Handbook”. With his definition of quality as fitness for use, he said that quality is not always about conformity to specifications but also knowing what the customer intention in using the products. Juran also known for his Quality Trilogy: Quality Planning, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement.
3. Crosby: Philip B. Crosby’s concept is Zero Defect. This concept stated that no amount of defect shall take into account. Crosby snubbed the idea to allow minor defects in a process. He emphasized to prevent any possibility of defects. With his book “Quality is free”, he promotes his concept that quality is quantifiable. Cost of quality such as waste of labor, scrap, lost sales, even organizational cost are costs that should be prevented in order to improve quality.
Similarity from these 3 gurus is that the role of management and use of statistical control tools are the key factors to achieve the definition of Quality “Meet and Deliver the Customer’s Expectation”.
Here I attach the comparison between these 3 gurus which I retrieve from my partner blog, Ramzi Quzwain, and zulqarnain.us/files/tqmphilosophies.doc.
Total Quality Management retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/college/sc/reid/chap5.pdf
Shyam, Radhey. and firstname.lastname@example.org, Total Quality Management, retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/38331105/2/The-Crosby-philosophy
Total Quality Management (TQM) retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/quality/total-quality-management.htm
Zulkarnain, tqmphilosopies retrieved from zulqarnain.us/files/tqmphilosophies.doc
Disraeli, Benjamin, Deming’s 14 Points for Management, 1987, retrieved from http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~mullins/quality/Deming.pdf